SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of operations and basis of presentation
We are a biotechnology company dedicated to discovering, developing and providing novel small molecule drugs that significantly improve the lives of patients with immune and hematologic disorders, cancer and rare diseases. Our pioneering research focuses on signaling pathways that are critical to disease mechanisms. Our first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved product is TAVALISSE® (fostamatinib disodium hexahydrate), the only oral spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor, for the treatment of adult patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) who have had an insufficient response to a previous treatment. The marketing authorization application (MAA) for fostamatinib has been approved by the European Commission (EC) in Europe for the treatment of chronic ITP in adult patients who are refractory to other treatments, and will be marketed in Europe under the name TAVLESSE® (fostamatinib). Our clinical programs include a Phase 3 study of fostamatinib in warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA); a recently completed Phase 1 study of R835, a proprietary molecule from our interleukin receptor associated kinase (IRAK 1/4) inhibitor program; and an ongoing Phase 1 study of R552, a proprietary molecule from our receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP1) inhibitor program. In addition, we have product candidates in clinical development with partners BerGenBio ASA (BerGenBio), Daiichi Sankyo (Daiichi), Aclaris Therapeutics (Aclaris), and AstraZeneca AB (AZ).
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include those relating to revenue recognition on product sales and collaboration agreements, recoverability of our assets, including accounts receivables and inventories, stock-based compensation and the probability of achievement of corporate performance-based milestone for our performance-based stock option awards, impairment issues, the weighted average discount rate for our lease, estimated interest rate for our financing liability, the estimated useful life of assets, and estimated accruals, particularly research and development accruals, on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. To the extent there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, our financial statements will be affected.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or estimated net realizable value. We determine the cost of inventories using the standard cost method, which approximates actual cost based on a FIFO basis. Inventories consist primarily of third-party manufacturing costs and allocated internal overhead costs. We began capitalizing inventory costs associated with our product upon regulatory approval when, based on management’s judgment, future commercialization was considered probable and the future economic benefit was expected to be realized.
Prior to FDA approval of TAVALISSE, all manufacturing costs were charged to research and development expense in the period incurred. At December 31, 2019, our physical inventory included active pharmaceutical product of which costs have been previously charged to research and development expense. However, manufacturing of drug product, finished bottling and other labeling activities that occurred post FDA approval are included in the inventory value at December 31, 2019.
We record write-downs for potential excess, dated or obsolete inventories based on an analysis of forecasted demand compared to quantities on hand and any firm purchase orders, as well as product shelf life.
Cost of Product Sales
Cost of product sales consists of third-party manufacturing costs, transportation and freight, and indirect overhead costs associated with the manufacture and distribution of TAVALISSE. A portion of the cost of producing the product sold to date was expensed as research and development prior to the NDA approval for TAVALISSE and therefore is not included in the cost of product sales during this period.
Accounts receivable are recorded net of customer allowances for prompt payment discounts and any allowance for doubtful accounts. We estimate the allowance for doubtful accounts based on existing contractual payment terms, actual payment patterns of its customers and individual customer circumstances. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we have determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts is not required.
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue From Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), when our customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine whether arrangements are within the scope of ASC 606, we perform the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies its performance obligation. We apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the we will collect the consideration we are entitled to in exchange for the goods or services we transfer to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of this new guidance, we assess the goods or services promised within each contract and identify, as a performance obligation, and assess whether each promised good or service is distinct. We then recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.
Revenues from product sales are recognized when the Specialty Distributors (SDs), who are our customers, obtain control of our product, which occurs at a point in time, upon delivery to such SDs. These SDs subsequently resell our products to specialty pharmacy providers, health care providers, hospitals and clinics. In addition to distribution agreements with these SDs, we also enter into arrangements with specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities that provide for government-mandated and/or privately-negotiated rebates, chargebacks and discounts with respect to the purchase of our products.
Under ASC 606, we are required to estimate the transaction price, including variable consideration that is subject to a constraint, in our contracts with our customers. Variable considerations are included in the transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. Revenue from product sales are recorded net of certain variable considerations which includes estimated government-mandated rebates and chargebacks, distribution fees, estimated product returns and other deductions.
Provisions for returns and other adjustments are provided for in the period the related revenue is recorded. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from our estimates. If actual results in the future vary from our estimates, we will adjust these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.
The following are our significant categories of sales discounts and allowances:
Sales Discounts. We provide our customers prompt payment discounts that are explicitly stated in our contracts and are recorded as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized.
Product Returns. We offer our SDs a right to return product purchased directly from us, which is principally based upon the product’s expiration date. Product return allowances are estimated and recorded at the time of sale.
Government Rebates: We are subject to discount obligations under the state Medicaid programs, Tricare program and Medicare prescription drug coverage gap program. We estimate our Medicaid and Medicare prescription drug coverage gap rebates based upon a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated payor mix. These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability that is included as part of Other Accrued Liabilities account in the Balance Sheet. Our liability for these rebates consists primarily of estimates of claims for the current quarter, and estimated future claims that will be made for product that has been recognized as revenue, but remains in the distribution channel inventories at the end of each reporting period.
Chargebacks and Discounts: Chargebacks for fees and discounts represent the estimated obligations resulting from contractual commitments to sell products to certain specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities at prices lower than the list prices charged to our SDs who directly purchase the product from us. These SDs charge us for the difference between what they pay for the product and our contracted selling price to these specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities. These reserves are established in the same period that the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue. Actual chargeback amounts are generally determined at the time of resale to the specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities by our SDs. The estimated obligations arising from these chargebacks and discounts are included as part of Other Accrued Liabilities in the balance sheet.
Co-Payment Assistance: We offer co-payment assistance to commercially insured patients meeting certain eligibility requirements. The calculation of the accrual for co-pay assistance is based on an estimated number of claims and the cost per claim that we expect to receive associated with product that has been recognized as revenue.
Contract Revenues from Collaborations
In the normal course of business, we conduct research and development programs independently and in connection with our corporate collaborators, pursuant to which we license certain rights to our intellectual property to third parties. The terms of these arrangements typically include payment to us for a combination of one or more of the following: upfront license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; product supply services; and royalties on net sales of licensed products.
Upfront License Fees: If the license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize revenues from upfront license fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time. If the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time, we use judgment in determining the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from the up-front license fees. We evaluate the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.
Development, Regulatory or Commercial Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes payments based on the achievement of certain development, regulatory and commercial or launch events, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our or the licensee’s control, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until the uncertainty associated with the approvals has been resolved. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation, on a relative standalone selling price basis, for which we recognize revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achieving such development and regulatory milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, and recorded as part of contract revenues from collaborations during the period of adjustment.
Product Supply Services: Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of drug product for either clinical development or commercial supply at the licensee’s discretion are generally considered as options. We assess if these options provide a material right to the licensee and if so, they are accounted for as separate performance obligations.
Sales-based Milestone Payments and Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the volume of sales, we determine whether the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties or sales-based milestones relate to and if such is the case, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
Stock award plans
On May 16, 2018, our stockholders approved the adoption of the Company’s 2018 Equity Incentive Plan (2018 Plan). The 2018 Plan is the successor plan to the 2011 Equity Incentive Plan, the 2000 Equity Incentive Plan, and the 2000 Non-Employee Directors' Stock Option Plan.
As of December 31, 2019, we have two stock option plans, our 2018 Plan and the Inducement Plan (collectively, the Equity Incentive Plans), that provide for granting to our officers, directors and all other employees and consultants options to purchase shares of our common stock. We also have our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (Purchase Plan), wherein eligible employees can purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value on the first day of the offering period or 85% of the fair market value on the purchase date. The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model which considered our stock price, as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, volatility, expected term, risk-free interest rate and dividends. We estimate volatility over the expected term of the option using historical share price performance. For expected term, we take into consideration our historical data of options exercised, cancelled and expired. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury constant maturity rate. We have not paid and do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. We use the straight-line attribution method over the requisite employee service period for the entire award in recognizing stock-based compensation expense. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
We granted performance-based stock options to purchase shares of our common stock which will vest upon the achievement of certain corporate performance-based milestones. We determined the fair values of these performance-based stock options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model at the date of grant. For the portion of the performance-based stock options of which the performance condition is considered probable of achievement, we recognize stock-based compensation expense on the related estimated grant date fair values of such options on a straight-line basis from the date of grant up to the date when we expect the performance condition will be achieved. For the performance conditions that are not considered probable of achievement at the grant date or upon quarterly re-evaluation, prior to the event actually occurring, we recognize the related stock-based compensation expense when the event occurs or when we can determine that the performance condition is probable of achievement. In those cases, we recognize the change in estimate at the time we determine the condition is probable of achievement (by recognizing stock-based compensation expense as cumulative catch-up adjustment as if we had estimated at the grant date that the performance condition would have been achieved) and recognize the remaining compensation cost up to the date when we expect the performance condition will be achieved, if any.
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments
We consider all highly liquid investments in debt securities with maturity from the date of purchase of 90 days or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist of money market funds, U.S. treasury bills, corporate bonds and commercial paper and investments in government‑sponsored enterprises. Our short-term investments include U.S. treasury bills, obligations of government‑ sponsored enterprises and corporate bonds and commercial paper. By policy, we limit the concentration of credit risk by diversifying our investments among a variety of high credit‑quality issuers. We view our short-term investments portfolio as available for use in current operations. Accordingly, we have classified certain securities as short-term investments on our balance sheet even though the stated maturity date of these securities may be more than one year from the current balance sheet date.
All cash equivalents and short‑term investments are classified as available‑for‑sale securities. Available‑for‑sale securities are carried at fair value at December 31, 2019 and 2018. Unrealized gains (losses) are reported in the statements of stockholders’ equity and comprehensive loss. Fair value is estimated based on available market information or valuation methodologies. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method. See Note 7 for a summary of available-for-sale securities at December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Fair value of financial instruments
The carrying values of cash, accounts receivable, prepaid and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of those instruments. Cash equivalents and short-term investments are carried at fair value at December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Concentration of credit risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk are primarily cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and accounts receivable. Cash equivalents and short-term investments primarily consist of money market funds, U.S. treasury bills, government-sponsored enterprise securities, and corporate bonds and commercial paper. Due to the short-term nature of these investments, we believe we do not have a material exposure to credit risk arising from our investments. All cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments are maintained with financial institutions that management believes are creditworthy.
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable are limited due to our limited number of customers.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is calculated using the straight‑line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to seven years.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses include costs for scientific personnel, supplies, equipment, consultants, research sponsored by us, allocated facility costs, costs related to pre‑clinical and clinical trials, including raw materials, and stock‑based compensation expense. All such costs are charged to research and development expense as incurred and at the time raw materials are purchased.
Research and development accruals
We have various contracts with third parties related to our research and development activities. Costs that are incurred but not billed to us as of the end of the period are accrued. We make estimates of the amounts incurred in each period based on the information available to us and our knowledge of the nature of the contractual activities generating such costs. Clinical trial contract expenses are accrued based on units of activity. Expenses related to other research and development contracts, such as research contracts, toxicology study contracts and manufacturing contracts are estimated to be incurred generally on a straight-line basis over the duration of the contracts. Raw materials and study materials not related to our approved drug, purchased for us by third parties are expensed at the time of purchase.
We currently lease our research and office space under a noncancelable lease agreement with our landlord through January 2023. In December 2014, we entered into a sublease agreement with an unrelated third party to occupy a portion of our research and office space through January 2023.
We adopted ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements as of January 1, 2019. Pursuant to Topic 842, all of our leases outstanding on January 1, 2019 continued to be classified as operating leases. With the adoption of Topic 842, we recorded an operating lease right-of-use asset and an operating lease liability on our balance sheet. Right-of-use lease assets represent our right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and the lease obligation represents our commitment to make the lease payments arising from the lease. Right-of-use lease assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. As our lease does not provide an implicit rate, we have used an estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The operating lease right-of-use asset includes any lease payments made prior to commencement. The lease term may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, subject to any changes in the lease or expectations regarding the terms. Variable lease costs such as common area costs and property taxes are expensed as incurred. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet.
For our sublease agreement wherein we are the lessor, sublease income will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the sublease. The difference between the cash received, and the straight-line lease income recognized, if any, will be recorded as part of prepaid and other current assets in the balance sheet.
Prior to our adoption of Topic 842, we recorded a deferred rent asset or liability equal to the difference between the rent expense and the future minimum lease payments due. We recorded lease expense on a straight‑line basis for our lease, net of sublease income, wherein such arrangements contain scheduled rent increases over the term of the lease and sublease, respectively.
We use the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities from a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period the change is enacted. A valuation allowance is established to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount whose realization is more likely than not.
Net loss per share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted‑average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted‑average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period and the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if potentially dilutive securities had been issued. Potentially dilutive securities include warrant and stock options and shares issuable under our Purchase Plan. The dilutive effect of these potentially dilutive securities is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method. Under the treasury stock method, an increase in the fair market value of our common stock can result in a greater dilutive effect from potentially dilutive securities.
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share (in thousands, except per share amounts):
During the periods presented, we had securities which could potentially dilute basic earnings per share, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for all periods presented, as their effect would have been antidilutive. These securities consist of the following (in thousands except per share data):
Recent accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02—Leases, (Topic 842) (ASU 2016-02), as amended, which generally requires lessees to recognize operating and financing lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets on the balance sheet and to provide enhanced disclosures surrounding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leasing arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, or ASU No. 2018-11. In issuing ASU No. 2018-11, the FASB is permitting another transition method for ASU 2016-02, which allows the transition to the new lease standard by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption.
We adopted this new standard on January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach and elected the transition method and the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which allowed us to carryforward our historical lease classification and our assessment on whether a contract is or contains a lease. We also elected to combine lease and non-lease components, such as common area maintenance charges, as single lease, and elected to use the short-term lease exception permitted by the standard.
As a result of the adoption of Topic 842 on January 1, 2019, we recognized $32.8 million in operating right-of-use asset and $33.2 million in lease liability, and derecognized $399,000 of deferred rent in the balance sheet at adoption date. These were calculated using the present value of our remaining lease payments using an estimated incremental borrowing rate of 9%. There was no cumulative-effect adjustment on our accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2019.
For our sublease agreement wherein we are the lessor, the same practical expedients apply to both lessor and lessee. Therefore, the sublease is classified as an operating lease under Topic 842. Further, the adoption of Topic 842 did not have an impact on our sublease on the date of adoption as all the expected sublease income is equal to the expected lease costs for the head leases over the remaining period of the lease term, and therefore, no impairment of the operating right-of-use asset is needed upon the adoption of Topic 842.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07—Compensation-Stock Compensation Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718). This standard substantially aligns accounting for share-based payments to employees and non-employees. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that period, and early adoption is permitted. We adopted this new standard on January 1, 2019 and our adoption did not have a material effect on our financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13—Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which represents a new credit loss standard that will change the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other financial instruments. Specifically, this guidance will require entities to utilize a new “expected loss” model as it relates to trade and other receivables. In addition, entities will be required to recognize an allowance for estimated credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities, regardless of the length of time that a security has been in an unrealized loss position. This guidance will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. We will adopt this new standard on January 1, 2020 and do not expect a material impact of this new standard on our financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13—Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (ASU 2018-13), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods therein. We will adopt this new standard on January 1, 2020 and do not expect a material impact of this new standard on our financial statements and related disclosures.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18—Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. This standard provides guidance on the interaction between Revenue Recognition (Topic 606) and Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808) by aligning the unit of account guidance between the two topics and clarifying whether certain transactions between collaborative participants should be accounted for as revenue under Topic 606. ASU 2018-18 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef