Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02—Leases, (Topic 842) (ASU 2016-02), as amended, which generally requires lessees to recognize operating and financing lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets on the balance sheet and to provide enhanced disclosures surrounding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leasing arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, or ASU No. 2018-11. In issuing ASU No. 2018-11, the FASB is permitting another transition method for ASU 2016-02, which allows the transition to the new lease standard by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption.
We adopted this new standard on January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach and elected the transition method and the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which allowed us to carryforward our historical lease classification and our assessment on whether a contract is or contains a lease. We also elected to combine lease and non-lease components, such as common area maintenance charges, as single lease, and elected to use the short-term lease exception permitted by the standard.
As a result of the adoption of Topic 842 on January 1, 2019, we recognized $32.8 million in operating right-of-use asset and $33.2 million in lease liability, and derecognized $399,000 of deferred rent in the balance sheet at adoption date. These were calculated using the present value of our remaining lease payments using an estimated incremental borrowing rate of 9%. There was no cumulative-effect adjustment on our accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2019.
For our sublease agreement wherein we are the lessor, the same practical expedients apply to both lessor and lessee. Therefore, the sublease is classified as an operating lease under Topic 842. Further, the adoption of Topic 842 did not have an impact on our sublease on the date of adoption as all the expected sublease income is equal to the expected lease costs for the head leases over the remaining period of the lease term, and therefore, no impairment of the operating right-of-use asset is needed upon the adoption of Topic 842.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07—Compensation-Stock Compensation Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718). This standard substantially aligns accounting for share-based payments to employees and non-employees. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that period, and early adoption is permitted. We adopted this new standard on January 1, 2019 and our adoption did not have a material effect on our financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13—Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which represents a new credit loss standard that will change the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other financial instruments. Specifically, this guidance will require entities to utilize a new “expected loss” model as it relates to trade and other receivables. In addition, entities will be required to recognize an allowance for estimated credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities, regardless of the length of time that a security has been in an unrealized loss position. This guidance will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new standard on our financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13—Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (ASU 2018-13), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of this new standard on our related disclosures.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18—Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. This standard provides guidance on the interaction between Revenue Recognition (Topic 606) and Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808) by aligning the unit of account guidance between the two topics and clarifying whether certain transactions between collaborative participants should be accounted for as revenue under Topic 606. ASU 2018-18 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt this new standard on January 1, 2020. We are currently evaluating the impact ASU 2018-18 will have on our financial statements and related disclosures, but do not expect it to have a material impact on our financial statements.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or estimated net realizable value. We determine the cost of inventories using the standard cost method, which approximates actual cost based on a first-in, first out basis. Inventories consist primarily of third-party manufacturing costs and allocated internal overhead costs. We began capitalizing inventory costs associated with our product upon regulatory approval when, based on management’s judgment, future commercialization was considered probable and the future economic benefit was expected to be realized.
Prior to FDA approval of TAVALISSE, all manufacturing costs were charged to research and development expense in the period incurred. At September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, our physical inventory included active pharmaceutical product of which costs have been previously charged to research and development expense. However, manufacturing of drug product, finished bottling and other labeling activities that occurred post FDA approval are included in the inventory value at each balance sheet date.
We provide reserves for potential excess, dated or obsolete inventories based on an analysis of forecasted demand compared to quantities on hand and any firm purchase orders, as well as product shelf life.
|Cost of Product Sales
Cost of Product Sales
Cost of product sales consists of third-party manufacturing costs, transportation and freight, and indirect overhead costs associated with the manufacture and distribution of TAVALISSE. A portion of the cost of producing the product sold to date was expensed as research and development prior to the Company’s New Drug Application (NDA) approval for TAVALISSE and therefore is not included in the cost of product sales during this period.
Accounts receivable are recorded net of customer allowances for prompt payment discounts and any allowance for doubtful accounts. We estimate the allowance for doubtful accounts based on existing contractual payment terms, actual payment patterns of our customers and individual customer circumstances. To date, we have determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts is not required.
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue From Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), when our customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine whether arrangements are within the scope of ASC 606, we perform the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies its performance obligation. We apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the we will collect the consideration we are entitled to in exchange for the goods or services we transfer to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of this new guidance, we assess the goods or services promised within each contract and identify, as a performance obligation, and assess whether each promised good or service is distinct. We then recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.
Revenues from product sales are recognized when the specialty distributors (SDs), who are our customers, obtain control of our product, which occurs at a point in time, upon delivery to such SDs. These SDs subsequently resell our products to specialty pharmacy providers, health care providers, hospitals and clinics. In addition to distribution agreements with these SDs, we also enter into arrangements with specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities that provide for government-mandated and/or privately-negotiated rebates, chargebacks and discounts with respect to the purchase of our products.
Under ASC 606, we are required to estimate the transaction price, including variable consideration that is subject to a constraint, in our contracts with our customers. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. Revenue from product sales are recorded net of certain variable consideration which includes estimated government-mandated rebates and chargebacks, distribution fees, estimated product returns and other deductions.
Provisions for returns and other adjustments are provided for in the period the related revenue is recorded. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from our estimates. If actual results in the future vary from our estimates, we will adjust these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.
The following are our significant categories of sales discounts and allowances:
Sales Discounts. We provide our customers prompt payment discounts that are explicitly stated in our contracts and are recorded as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized.
Product Returns. We offer our SDs a right to return product purchased directly from us, which is principally based upon the product’s expiration date. Product return allowances are estimated and recorded at the time of sale.
Government Rebates: We are subject to discount obligations under the state Medicaid programs and Medicare prescription drug coverage gap program. We estimate our Medicaid and Medicare prescription drug coverage gap rebates based upon a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated payor mix. These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability that is included as part of Other Accrued Liabilities account in the Balance Sheet. Our liability for these rebates consists primarily of estimates of claims for the current quarter, and estimated future claims that will be made for product that has been recognized as revenue, but remains in the distribution channel inventories at the end of each reporting period.
Chargebacks and Discounts: Chargebacks for fees and discounts represent the estimated obligations resulting from contractual commitments to sell products to certain specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities at prices lower than the list prices charged to our SDs who directly purchase the product from us. These SDs charge us for the difference between what they pay for the product and our contracted selling price to these specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities. These reserves are established in the same period that the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue. Actual chargeback amounts are generally determined at the time of resale to the specialty pharmacy providers, in-office dispensing providers, group purchasing organizations, and government entities by our SDs. The estimated obligations arising from these chargebacks and discounts are included as part of Other Accrued Liabilities in the balance sheet.
Co-Payment Assistance: We offer co-payment assistance to commercially insured patients meeting certain eligibility requirements. The calculation of the accrual for co-pay assistance is based on an estimate of claims and the cost per claim that we expect to receive associated with product that has been recognized as revenue.
Contract Revenues from Collaborations
In the normal course of business, we conduct research and development programs independently and in connection with our corporate collaborators, pursuant to which we license certain rights to our intellectual property to third parties. The terms of these arrangements typically include payment to us for a combination of one or more of the following: upfront license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; product supply services; and royalties on net sales of licensed products.
Upfront License Fees: If the license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize revenues from upfront license fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time. If the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time, we use judgment in determining the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from the up-front license fees. We evaluate the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.
Development, Regulatory or Commercial Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes payments based on the achievement of certain development, regulatory and commercial or launch events, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our or the licensee’s control, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until uncertainty associated with the approvals has been resolved. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation, on a relative standalone selling price basis, for which we recognize revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achieving such development and regulatory milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, and recorded as part of contract revenues from collaborations during the period of adjustment.
Product Supply Services: Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of drug product for either clinical development or commercial supply at the licensee’s discretion are generally considered as options. We assess if these options provide a material right to the licensee and if so, they are accounted for as separate performance obligations.
Sales-based Milestone Payments and Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the volume of sales, we determine whether the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties or sales-based milestones relate to and if such is the case, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
We currently lease our research and office space under a noncancelable lease agreement with our landlord through January 2023. In December 2014, we entered into a sublease agreement with an unrelated third party to occupy a portion of our research and office space through January 2023.
As described above, we adopted the Topic 842 as of January 1, 2019. Pursuant to Topic 842, all of our leases outstanding on January 1, 2019 continued to be classified as operating leases. With the adoption of Topic 842, we recorded an operating lease right-of-use asset and an operating lease liability on our balance sheet. Right-of-use lease assets represent our right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and the lease obligation represents our commitment to make the lease payments arising from the lease. Right-of-use lease assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. As our lease does not provide an implicit rate, we have used an estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The operating lease right-of-use asset includes any lease payments made prior to commencement. The lease term may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, subject to any changes in the lease or expectations regarding the terms. Variable lease costs such as common area costs and property taxes are expensed as incurred. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet.
For our sublease agreement wherein we are the lessor, sublease income will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the sublease. The difference between the cash received, and the straight-line lease income recognized, if any, will be recorded as part of prepaid and other current assets in the balance sheet.
Prior to our adoption of Topic 842, we recorded a deferred rent asset or liability equal to the difference between the rent expense and the future minimum lease payments due. We recorded lease expense on a straight‑line basis for our lease, net of sublease income, wherein such arrangements contain scheduled rent increases over the term of the lease and sublease, respectively.
|Research and Development Accruals
Research and Development Accruals
We have various contracts with third parties related to our research and development activities. Costs that are incurred but not billed to us as of the end of the period are accrued. We make estimates of the amounts incurred in each period based on the information available to us and our knowledge of the nature of the contractual activities generating such costs. Clinical trial contract expenses are accrued based on units of activity. Expenses related to other research and development contracts, such as research contracts, toxicology study contracts and manufacturing contracts are estimated to be incurred generally on a straight-line basis over the duration of the contracts. Raw materials and study materials not related to our approved drug, purchased for us by third parties are expensed at the time of purchase.